Women’s skin tends to be thinner than men’s skin. As a result, it is more sensitive and reacts stronger to external stimuli. This can lead to irritation and allergic reactions.

Women have less collagen than men. The collagen content is reduced by approx. 3 % over a period of 20 years. From the menopause onwards, approx. 1 % per year.

The condition and appearance of women’s skin is strongly influenced by hormonal changes, such as those that occur during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy or the menopause. These have an impact on the skin’s moisture balance, sebum production and elasticity. During the menopause, oestrogen decreases and the anti-atrophic (anti-shrinkage) protective effect on the epithelial, collagen and elastic fibres decreases gradually.

Women’s skin shows an almost parallel arrangement of collagen fibres. Cellulite is favoured for this reason.

The pH value is higher (less acidic) than in men` s skin. As a result, the skin barrier is somewhat weaker and more susceptible to bacteria and other harmful influences.

Women produce about half as much sebum as men. Their skin is therefore less oily. Women’s skin is therefore generally less prone to blemishes such as acne.

The usual moisture content for young and healthy skin is between 10 and 20 percent. The skin underneath is visibly dry, tight, itchy and flaky.

Women are more frequently affected by skin conditions such as rosacea and eczema. Pigmentation disorders such as melasma also occur more frequently in women, especially during pregnancy.

These characteristics influence women’s skincare needs, which is why skincare products often focus on moisturising, on sensitive skin and on anti-ageing properties.

Skin color is primarily determined by genetics. As part of evolution, different human races with different skin colors have developed through adaptation to certain habitats. Skin colour is determined by the density and distribution of the coloring molecule melanin. Melanin is produced by the so-called melanocytes. These are located at the lowest end of the epidermis, in the outer root sheath and in the bulb of the hair follicle.

The pigment is stored in the melanocytes in small bodies called melanosomes inside the cell. Their function is to protect the cell nucleus and the genetic material it contains from UV light. If sun exposure increases, the skin usually tans. Tanning is therefore nothing else than a protective mechanism.

The melanin is transferred from the melanocytes to the other cells of the epidermis. The amount of melanin determines the skin type. The skin type is not determined by the number of melanocytes, but by their activity. Their number is the same for individuals with different skin types. However, the ability of melanocytes to produce melanin varies greatly.

Thin skin epidermis stained with the Fontana silver method showing a large presence of melanin pigment in the basal and spinous layers. The pigmented cells are both melanocytes and keratinocytes.

The medical photoyping scale
according to Th. Fitzpatrick

Skin type I - Celtic type

is particularly sensitive. It is characterised by very light skin, freckles, red hair and light-coloured eyes. It practically always burns and practically never tans. The self-protection time is up to 10 minutes. Unprotected, there is a high risk of skin cancer.

Skin type II - Nordic type

is characterised by light, sensitive skin, blonde hair and light-coloured eyes. It burns easily and tans minimally. The self-protection time is up to 20 minutes.

Skin type III - Mixed type

shows light to light brown skin, light brown to dark brown hair, light, grey or brown eyes. This type rarely burns and tans well. The self-protection time is up to 30 minutes.

Skin type IV - Mediterranean type

has medium brown, olive-coloured skin, dark hair and dark brown eyes. She rarely burns and tans very well. The self-protection time is up to 60 minutes.

Skin type V - Dark type

has dark brown skin, dark brown hair and dark brown eyes. This type burns very rarely and tans very well. The self-protection time is up to 90 minutes.

Skin type VI - Black type

has dark brown to black skin, dark brown eyes and black hair. It burns extremely rarely or not at all. The self-protection time is longer than 90 minutes.